iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company’s mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.

Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipetappinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface.

Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Apple has been significantly praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use its products.


Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets. Android’s user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input.

In addition to touch screen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics.



Phone Gap is an open source hybrid mobile application development framework manufactured by Nitobi (which was then later taken over by Adobe Systems in 2011). It allows developers to build hybrid apps for smartphones by using JavaScript, HTML5, and CSS3 instead of depending upon platform centric APIs like iOS, Windows or Android.

It has the ability to wrap the codes depending upon the platform on which the device is run on. It comes with extended features for HTML & JavaScript (like HTML5). PhoneGap’s core applications use HTML5 and CSS3 for their rendering their information and uses JavaScript for its logic. These applications are hybrid in nature because neither they are native or web apps. They are pet named as “packaged apps” because they are packaged & customized like any other product to be offered to the end consumer. They are then distributed to enterprises & individuals post their development.

Ionic Framework

Ionic is a complete open-source SDK for hybrid mobile app development. The original version was released in 2013 and built on top of Angular JS and Apache Cordova. The more recent releases, known as Ionic 2 or simply “Ionic”, are built on Angular. Ionic provides tools and services for developing hybrid mobile apps using Web technologies like CSS, HTML5, and Sass. Apps can be built with these Web technologies and then distributed through native app stores to be installed on devices by leveraging Cordova. Ionic was created by Max Lynch, Ben Sperry, and Adam Bradley of Drifty Co. in 2013.


Angular is a framework for building client applications in HTML and either JavaScript or a language like Type Script that compiles to JavaScript. Angular combines declarative templates, dependency injection, end to end tooling, and integrated best practices to solve development challenges. Angular empowers developers to build applications that live on the web, mobile, or the desktop.


Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform JavaScript run-time environment for executing JavaScript     code server-side. Historically, JavaScript was used primarily for client-side scripting, in which scripts written in JavaScript are embedded in a webpage’s HTML, to be run client-side by a JavaScript engine in the user’s web browser.

Node.js enables JavaScript to be used for server-side scripting, and runs scripts server-side to produce dynamic web page content before the page is sent to the user’s web browser. Consequently, Node.js has become one of the foundational elements of the “JavaScript everywhere” paradigm, allowing web application development to unify around a single programming language, rather than rely on a different language for writing server side scripts.